Hydroxyapatite-coated SPIONs and their influence on cytokine release

Hydroxyapatite- or calcium phosphate-coated iron oxide nanoparticles have a high potential for use in many biomedical applications. In this study, a co-precipitation method for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite-coated nanoparticles (SPIONHAp), was used. The produced nanoparticles have been characterized by dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, atomic emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed a successful synthesis of 190 nm sized particles and their stable coating, resulting in SPIONHAp. Potential cytotoxic effects of SPIONHAp on EL4, THP-1, and Jurkat cells were tested, showing only a minor effect on cell viability at the highest tested concentration (400 [my]g Fe/mL). The results further showed that hydroxyapatite-coated SPIONs can induce minor TNF-α and IL-6 release by murine macrophages at a concentration of 100 [my]g Fe/mL. To investigate if and how such particles interact with other substances that modulate the immune response, SPIONHAp-treated macrophages were incubated with LPS (lipopolysaccharides) and dexamethasone. We found that cytokine release in response to these potent pro- and anti-inflammatory agents was modulated in the presence of SPIONHAp. Knowledge of this behavior is important for the management of inflammatory processes following in vivo applications of this type of SPIONs.


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