This manuscript is on the theory and numerical procedures of vector optimization w.r.t. various ordering structures, on recent developments in this area and, most important, on their application to medical engineering. In vector optimization one considers optimization problems with a vector-valued objective map and thus one has to compare elements in a linear space. If the linear space is the finite dimensional space R^m this can be done componentwise. That corresponds to the notion of an Edgeworth-Pareto-optimal solution of a multiobjective optimization problem. Among the multitude of applications which can be modeled by such a multiobjective optimization problem, we present an application in intensity modulated radiation therapy and its solution by a numerical procedure. In case the linear space is arbitrary, maybe infinite dimensional, one may introduce a partial ordering which defines how elements are compared. Such problems arise for instance in magnetic resonance tomography where the number of Hermitian matrices which have to be considered for a control of the maximum local specific absorption rate can be reduced by applying procedures from vector optimization. In addition to a short introduction and the application problem, we present a numerical solution method for solving such vector optimization problems. A partial ordering can be represented by a convex cone which describes the set of directions in which one assumes that the current values are deteriorated. If one assumes that this set may vary dependently on the actually considered element in the linear space, one may replace the partial ordering by a variable ordering structure. This was for instance done in an application in medical image registration. We present a possibility of how to model such variable ordering structures mathematically and how optimality can be defined in such a case. We also give a numerical solution method for the case of a finite set of alternatives.
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