This paper concerns schedule synchronization problems in public transit networks. In particular, it consists of three main parts. In the first the subject area is introduced, the terms are defined and framework for optimal synchronization in the form of problem representation and formulation is proposed. The second part is devoted to transfer synchronization problem when passengers changing transit lines at transfer points. The intergrated Tabu Search and Genetic solution method is developed with respect to this specific problem. The third part deals with headways harmonization problem i.e. synchronization of different transit lines schedules on a common segments of routes. For the solution of this problem a new bilevel optimization method is proposed with zones harmonization at the bottom level and co-ordination of zones, by time buffers assigned to timing points, at the upper level. Finally, the synchronization problems are numerically illustrated by real-life examples of the public transport lines in Cracow.