The objective of this work was to measure and correlate the degree of conversion (DC), mechanical properties and monomer elution from self-, dual- and light-cured core composites. Five samples of each of the following materials were prepared for each test: Clearfil (Core, Photo Core, Automix), Bisco (Core-Flo, Light-Core and Bis-Core). DC was determined using FTIR, compressive and flexural strength and modulus of elasticity using a universal testing machine and microhardness using Vickers hardness. Elution was measured using HPLC. One-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-test and Pearson's correlation were used to statistically analyze the data. DC of Clearfil-Dual (70.1%) and Clerafil-Photo (66.8%) were higher than Clearfil-Self (55.4%) and all Bisco materials (51.4-55.3%). Flexural strength of Clearfilwas higher than that of Bisco composites. The Microhardness of Clearfil-Dual (119.8VHN) and Clearfil-Photo (118.0VHN) were higher compared to other materials. The greatest elution was detected from self-cured materials. DC positively correlated to microhardness and compressive/flexural strength and negatively to BisGMA elution. Clearfil-Photo and Automix showed higher conversion, lower monomer elution and, generally, better mechanical properties. Self-cured composites should not be recommended for routine clinical use as their performance was inferior to dual- and light-cured composites. Microhardness may be used as an indicator of elution.