Multiple intensity reference interferometry for the correction of sub-fringe displacement non-linearities

Displacement measuring interferometers, commonly employed for traceable measurements at the nanoscale, suffer from non-linearities in the measured displacement that limit the achievable measurement uncertainty for microscopic displacements. Two closely related novel non-linearity correction methodologies are presented here that allow for the correction of non-linearities in cases where the displacement covers much less than a full optical fringe. Both corrections have been shown, under ideal conditions, to be capable of reducing all residual non-linearity harmonics to below the 10 pm level.

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