Energy-resolved secondary-electron emission of candidate beam screen materials for electron cloud mitigation at the Large Hadron Collider

Energy-resolved secondary electron spectroscopy has been performed on air-exposed standard Cu samples and modified Cu surfaces that are tested and possibly applied to efficiently suppress electron cloud formation in the high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The Cu samples comprise pristine oxygen-free, carbon-coated and laser-structured surfaces, which were characterized prior to and after electron irradiation and rare-gas ion bombardment. Secondary-electron and reflected-electron yields measured with low charge dose of the samples exhibit a universal dependence on the energy of the primary impinging electrons. State-of-the-art models can successfully be used to describe the spectroscopic data. The supplied spectral dependence of electron emission and integrated electron yield as well as the derived parametrization can serve as a basis for forthcoming simulations of electron cloud formation and multipacting.


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