The first and introductory section of the dissertation presents the working principle of a one- and two-dimensional photonic mesh lattice based on the time-multiplexing technique. The basis of a random walk interrelated to the corresponding light and quantum walk is comprehensively discussed as well. The second part of the dissertation consists of three experiments on a one-dimensional photonic mesh lattice. Firstly, the Kapitza-based guiding light project models the Kapitza potential as a continuous Pauli-Schrödinger-like equation and presents an experimental observation of light localization when the transverse modulation is bell-shaped but with a vanishing average along the propagation direction. Secondly, the optical thermodynamics project experimentally demonstrates for the first time that any given initial modal occupancy reaches thermal equilibrium by following a Rayleigh-Jeans distribution when propagates through a multimodal photonic mesh lattice with weak nonlinearity. Remarkably, the final modal occupancy possesses a unique temperature and chemical potential that have nothing to do with the actual thermal environment. Finally, the quantum interference project discusses an experimental all-optical architecture based on a coupled-fiber loop for generating and processing time-bin entangled single-photon pairs. Besides, it shows coincidence-to-accidental ratio and quantum interference measurements relying on the phase modulation of those time bins. The third part of the dissertation comprises two experiments on a two-dimensional photonic mesh lattice. The first project discusses the experimental realization of a two-dimensional mesh lattice employing short- and long-range interaction. To some extent, the second project presents a nonconservative system based on a two-dimensional photonic mesh lattice exploiting parity-time (PT) symmetry.
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