Diffraction-based metrology in the extreme ultraviolet

Tuitje, Frederik GND

The growing numerical development of Coherent Diffraction Imaging (CDI) towards ptychography allows for the first time the separate reconstruction of object and the wavefront illuminating it. This work is dedicated to the investigation of further possibilities resulting from the complex reconstruction of object and illumination. In this thesis, gold structures buried in silicon are reconstructed and examined with regard to their surface morphology in reflection geometry. This completely non-destructive method allows metrology on structures of embedded circuits and otherwise hidden defects. The increasing demand for easily accessible and compact high-performance light sources around the silicon and water window opens the question regarding their suitability for lensless imaging. In the following chapters a method is introduced which allows an almost complete source analysis by means of a single long time exposed diffraction pattern. The knowledge gained in this way allows an improvement of the source with respect to water window CDI and provides insight into dynamic processes within the source. The complex-valued reconstruction of the wavefront allows an insight into the plasma and the ionization states prevailing there. The XUV seed pulse of a seeded Soft-X-Ray laser (SXRL), which passes the pumped plasma and changes its properties with respect to the states in the plasma, is reconstructed ptychographically. Adapted Maxwell-Bloch simulations allow by comparison with the measurement to restore the ionization states during the passage of the seed pulse. Previous experiments showed artifacts during reconstruction, which were directly related to the periodicity of the objects. Simulation of periodic objects of different sizes and with the addition of intentional defects showed a dependence of the reconstruction of the object on the illumination function. Various criteria were derived from this simulation and are presented in this thesis.

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