Methods and instrumentation for raman characterization of bladder cancer tumor

High incidence and recurrence rates make bladder cancer the most common malignant tumor in the urinary system. Cystoscopy is the gold standard test used for diagnosis, nevertheless small flat tumors might be missed, and the procedure still represents discomfort to patients and high recurrence can result from of urethral injuries. During cystoscopy, suspicious tumors are detected through white light endoscopy and resected tissue is further examined by histopathology. after resection, the pathologist provides information on the differentiation of the cells and the penetration depth of the tumor in the tissue, known as grading and staging of tumor, respectively. During cystoscopy, information on tumor grading and morphological depth characterization can assist onsite diagnosis and significantly reduce the amount of unnecessarily resected tissue. Recently, new developments in optical imaging and spectroscopic approaches have been demonstrated to improve the results of standard techniques by providing real-time detection of macroscopic and microscopic biomedical information. Different applications to detect anomalies in tissues and cells based on the chemical composition and structure at the microscopic level have been successfully tested. There is, nevertheless, the need to cope with the demands for clinical translation. This doctoral thesis presents the investigations, clinical studies and approaches applied to filling the main open research questions when applying Raman spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for bladder cancer tumor grading and general Raman spectroscopy-based oncological clinical studies.


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