In this PhD research, single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) was used to image nuclear structures with a resolution down to several nanometers.The scope of this PhD research is to develop a 3D SMLM microscope which can overcome several principle limitations in imaging nuclei in 3D. The advanced improvements during this PhD research include a broad range of research subjects associated to SMLM techniques. Firstly, one of the most common problems of a super-resolution microscope is sample drift, because a small sample drift may result in artefacts and can hamper the resolution. A speckle-based method was developed to correct sample drift without changing the standard design of the SMLM setup. This drift correction method can achieve a resolution of several nanometers. Secondly, another principle problem is that commonly used organic fluorophores are restricted in their photon budget. It is often observed that the chemical structure of fluorophores change after high laser irradiance resulting in photobleaching. A patterned illumination technique was developed which allows the user to define arbitrary regions of interest for illumination with a flat-top intensity profile. Thirdly, for SMLM in particular, a carefully adjusted chemical environment in the sample is recommended to induce sufficiently blinking signals of the organic fluorophores in combination with an appropriate laser irradiance. However, such an imaging buffer can degrade over time and may not be suitable for long time imaging. Nanographene was presented as a new class of fluorophores which have blinking properties without an imaging buffer. Therefore, the nanographenes facilitate a wide range of SMLM applications including bio-imaging and material science. These advanced developments are not only for imaging nuclei, but also applicable to applications in other biological researches and in material science.