Coupled CP decomposition of simultaneous MEG-EEG signals for differentiating oscillators during photic driving

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) are contemporary methods to investigate the function and organization of the brain. Simultaneously acquired MEG-EEG data are inherently multi-dimensional and exhibit coupling. This study uses a coupled tensor decomposition to extract the signal sources from MEG-EEG during intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). We employ the Coupled Semi-Algebraic framework for approximate CP decomposition via SImultaneous matrix diagonalization (C-SECSI). After comparing its performance with alternative methods using simulated benchmark data, we apply it to MEG-EEG recordings of 12 participants during IPS with fractions of the individual alpha frequency between 0.4 and 1.3. In the benchmark tests, C-SECSI is more accurate than SECSI and alternative methods, especially in ill-conditioned scenarios, e.g., involving collinear factors or noise sources with different variances. The component field-maps allow us to separate physiologically meaningful oscillations of visually evoked brain activity from background signals. The frequency signatures of the components identify either an entrainment to the respective stimulation frequency or its first harmonic, or an oscillation in the individual alpha band or theta band. In the group analysis of both, MEG and EEG data, we observe a reciprocal relationship between alpha and theta band oscillations. The coupled tensor decomposition using C-SECSI is a robust, powerful method for the extraction of physiologically meaningful sources from multidimensional biomedical data. Unsupervised signal source extraction is an essential solution for rendering advanced multi-modal signal acquisition technology accessible to clinical diagnostics, pre-surgical planning, and brain computer interface applications.


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