Fluidic self-assembly on electroplated multilayer solder bumps with tailored transformation imprinted melting points
This communication presents fluidic self-assembly of Si-chip on a sequentially electroplated multilayer solder bump with tailored transformation imprinted melting points. The multilayer solder bump is a lead free ternary solder system, which provides a route to transform the melting point of interconnects for applications in solder directed fluidic self-assembly. The outermost metal layers form a low melting point Bi33.7In66.3 solder shell (72 °C). This solder shell enables fluidic self-assembly and self-alignment of freely in water suspended Si-dies at relatively low temperature (75 °C) leading to well-ordered chip arrays. The reduction of the free surface energy of the shell-water interface provides the driving force for the self-assembly. The lowermost metal layer is a high melting point solder and acts as a core. After the self-assembly is complete, a short reflow causes the transformation of the core and the shell yielding a stable high melting point solder with adjustable melting points. The chosen ternary solder system enables the realization of interconnects with melting points in the range of 112 °C to 206 °C.