In vitro investigations on biological activities and bioaccessibility of rosehip carotenoids
Recent developments in the fields of health and food have led to a renewed interest in natural compounds with antioxidant potential. A diet rich in antioxidant components has potential effects on the human health by reducing the risk of various diseases, for example cardiovascular diseases, cancers and age-related macular degeneration . The selection of species/varieties with high contents of bioactive compounds and harvesting at the optimum time can promote the increase in the uptake of bioactive compounds from the fruits and vegetables. In recent decades, the rosehip fruit has been increasingly studied for its medical properties. The hips of Rosa species have received more attention in recent years due to their high contents of antioxidants. Genus Rosa contains over 100 species, which are widespread and different in their appearance as well as in the chemical composition. Although Rosa rugosa is known to produce the most abundant and best tasting hips, most food products are based on the hips of R. canina, although they are small compared with the R. rugosa hips . On the other hand, the limited bioavailability of antioxidants present in food from fruit and vegetable matrices is determined by their low bioaccessibility due to the physical and chemical interactions of the antioxidants with the indigestible polysaccharides of cell walls. Bioaccessibility is defined as the fraction of a compound that releases from its matrix in the gastrointestinal tract and thus becomes available for intestinal absorption [3-5]. However, human intervention studies to assess intestinal absorption are expensive, often invasive, and of long duration. Static in vitro models based on human physiology were developed as simple, inexpensive, and reproducible tools to predict the bioavailability of different food components. Although rosehips have more recently attracted attention because of their potential health benefits, there is little information about the change of antioxidants contents in different rosehip products as well as depending on the degree of ripeness, especially in rugosa hips. Furthermore, there is no study having investigated the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and vitamin E from rosehip raw materials as well as its products. ...
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