The aim of this research was to study the impact of various doxorubicin (Dox)-containing nanofluids, e.g. singlewalled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)+Dox, graphene oxide (GO)+Dox and Dextran-PNIPAM (copolymer)+Dox mixtures on HeLa cells (human transformed cervix epithelial cells, as a model for cancer cells) depending on their concentration. Methods: Structural analysis of GO+Dox complex was accomplished using Hartree-Fock level of theory in 6-31G** basis set in Gaussian. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential, scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used. The cell viability was analyzed by the MTT assay. Results: The viability of HeLa cells was studied with the MTT assay after the incubation with various Dox-containing dispersions depending on their concentration. The size of the particles was determined by DLS. The morphology of the nanoparticles (NPs) was studied by scanning electron microscopy and their uptake into cells was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was found that the Dextran-PNIPAM+Dox nanofluid in contrast to Dox alone showed higher toxicity towards HeLa cells up to 80% after 24 hours of incubation, whereas the SWCNT+Dox and GO+Dox nanofluids at the same concentrations protected cells from Dox. Conclusion: The importance of Dextran-PNIPAM copolymer as a universal platform for drug delivery was established, and the huge potential of Dextran-PNIPAM+Dox NPs as novel anticancer agents was noted. Based on the in vitro study of the SWCNT+Dox and GO+Dox nanofluids, it was concluded that SWCNT and GO NPs can be effective cytoprotectors against the highly toxic drugs.