Bidirectional Texture Functions: Acquisition, Rendering and Quality Evaluation
As one of its primary objectives, Computer Graphics aims at the simulation of fabrics’ complex reflection behaviour. Characteristic surface reflectance of fabrics, such as highlights, anisotropy or retro-reflection arise the difficulty of synthesizing. This problem can be solved by using Bidirectional Texture Functions (BTFs), a 2D-texture under various light and view direction. But the acquisition of Bidirectional Texture Functions requires an expensive setup and the measurement process is very time-consuming. Moreover, the size of BTF data can range from hundreds of megabytes to several gigabytes, as a large number of high resolution pictures have to be used in any ideal cases. Furthermore, the three-dimensional textured models rendered through BTF rendering method are subject to various types of distortion during acquisition, synthesis, compression, and processing. An appropriate image quality assessment scheme is a useful tool for evaluating image processing algorithms, especially algorithms designed to leave the image visually unchanged. In this contribution, we present and conduct an investigation aimed at locating a robust threshold for downsampling BTF images without loosing perceptual quality. To this end, an experimental study on how decreasing the texture resolution influences perceived quality of the rendered images has been presented and discussed. Next, two basic improvements to the use of BTFs for rendering are presented: firstly, the study addresses the cost of BTF acquisition by introducing a flexible low-cost step motor setup for BTF acquisition allowing to generate a high quality BTF database taken at user-defined arbitrary angles. Secondly, the number of acquired textures to the perceptual quality of renderings is adapted so that the database size is not overloaded and can fit better in memory when rendered. Although visual attention is one of the essential attributes of HVS, it is neglected in most existing quality metrics. In this thesis an appropriate objective quality metric based on extracting visual attention regions from images and adequate investigation of the influence of visual attention on perceived image quality assessment, called Visual Attention Based Image Quality Metric (VABIQM), has been proposed. The novel metric indicates that considering visual saliency can offer significant benefits with regard to constructing objective quality metrics to predict the visible quality differences in images rendered by compressed and non-compressed BTFs and also outperforms straightforward existing image quality metrics at detecting perceivable differences.