Subobject Detection through Spatial Relationships on Mobile Phones
We present a novel image classification technique for detecting multiple objects (called subobjects) in a single image. In addition to image classifiers, we apply spatial relationships among the subobjects to verify and to predict locations of detected and undetected subobjects, respectively. By continuously refining the spatial relationships throughout the detection process, even locations of completely occluded exhibits can be determined. Finally, all detected subobjects are labeled and the user can select the object of interest for retrieving corresponding multimedia information. This approach is applied in the context of PhoneGuide, an adaptive museum guidance system for camera-equipped mobile phones. We show that the recognition of subobjects using spatial relationships is up to 68% faster than related approaches without spatial relationships. Results of a field experiment in a local museum illustrate that unexperienced users reach an average recognition rate for subobjects of 85.6% under realistic conditions.