Object Oriented Finite Element Analysis for Structural Optimization using p-Elements
The optimization of continuous structures requires careful attention to discretization errors. Compared to ordinary low order formulation (h-elements) in conjunction with an adaptive mesh refinement in each optimization step, the use of high order finite elements (so called p-elements) has several advantages. However, compared to the h-method a higher order finite element analysis program poses higher demands from a software engineering point of view. In this article the basics of an object oriented higher order finite element system especially tailored to the use in structural optimization is presented. Besides the design of the system, aspects related to the employed implementation language Java are discussed.