Influence of Pin Length and Electrochemical Platings on the Mechanical Strength and Macroscopic Defect Formation in Stationary Shoulder Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium to Copper
The fabrication of dissimilar joints for electrical applications raises challenges for conventional joining technologies. Within solid-state processes, friction stir welding (FSW) provides numerous advantages to realize different joint configurations. However, depending on the intermixing of the materials, defects like hooking and significant intermetallic compound formation around copper fragments are observed and lead to a decrease in joint properties. Therefore, stationary shoulder FSW was applied to produce 2 mm EN AW1050/CW024A lap joints with minimized intermixing at the interface. Compared to conventional FSW, the range of the friction-based heat input can be increased without risking excessive plastification under the tool shoulder. The influence of the pin length on the interfacial structure as well as the mechanical properties were investigated. A pin length of 2.2 mm and hence a plunging of approximately 0.2 mm into the lower copper sheet was found to obtain the highest failure load. A further increase caused the formation of hooking defects, which led to void formation at the interface and failure within the area of the thinned aluminium sheet. The results were also transferred to lap joints with a tin and silver interlayer of 10 µm and also showed good results in terms of bond strength and contact area.