This paper presents a feasibility study of a non-aqueous rechargeable battery based on aluminum and poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) conductive polymer in a chloroaluminate ionic liquid. The polymer was electrodeposited on a vitreous carbon working electrode in a chloride aqueous solution and the structure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The doping/de-doping mechanism of chloride ions into the polymer structure was studied using a quartz crystal microbalance and cyclic voltammetry. The deposition/dissolution of the aluminum negative electrode were investigated by electrochemical and microscopic methods. Performance data were obtained with a laboratory-scale aluminum-conductive polymer battery at constant current showing an average cell discharge voltage of 1 V and specific energies of at least 84 Wh kg−1 referred to the mass of the polymer and aluminum. The system is novel and the paper outlines further research to improve the cell performance.