Human-Security, State-Capacity and Post-Conflict Reconstruction : An analysis of the question of development oriented governance in Post-Genocide Rwanda, 1994-2005.
Abstract This study generally obtains from the analytical boundaries of the discipline of political science. Its point of departure is that scholarship on Post 1994 Rwanda which, among other inherent flaws, is inundated with narratives about the causes of the Genocide and its immediate outcome like the number of deaths, yet its violent-continuous outcome particularly the resurgence of violence which led to visitations of violent conflict in Rwanda during its post-conflict reconstruction phase is scantly delineated. The theoretical and public-cum-Security policy meaning of how the Rwanda Patriotic Front managed to address the resurgence of violence is the major undertaking of this study. For that matter, in method, the study is qualitative; obtaining from archival analysis, histories, case study and literature survey. It draws from documentary sources, publications and scholarly journals, newspaper reports, official and unofficial documents of government, bodies, Non Government Organisations and intergovernmental bodies, international and local legal instruments, archival records, key informant interviews, and video and audio records as ``units of data collection`` and the Hutu refugee phenomenon as the ``unit of analysis``; in order to problematise Rwanda`s post-conflict reconstruction phase, particularly its development in state capacity. To that effect, the either supporting or off-putting evidence from Rwanda during the period in review, 1994-2005, was examined basing on the logic of the grounded theory methodology, specifically the ``theoretical elaboration`` procedure of Vaughan, to interrogate the meaning of state capacity, human security and the related debates, in the quest for an analytical framework to aid in explaining and understanding the issues which structured the resurgence of violence that bedeviled the post conflict reconstruction phase of post genocide Rwanda. Accordingly, in its quest to understand and explain: how Rwanda`s development in state capacity addressed the resurgence of violence which punctuated Rwanda’s post-conflict reconstruction period, the innovative contribution of this study to the body of knowledge about Rwanda and to the debate surrounding its conceptual concerns is that: Rwanda`s post-conflict reconstruction phase teaches us that where state capacity fails to address and maintain the ``human security condition`` of the populace, violent conflicts are abound as political demagogues manipulate the ``human insecurity effect`` on the people to mobilise them into group violence. Also it emerges that where threats to human security and state security converge to lead to a resurgence of violence during post-conflict reconstruction, development in state capacity is inevitably tilted towards addressing state security related concerns at the expense of human security related concerns, thus, a ``security dialectics``; a somewhat metaphysical convergence of human security and state security at the causative level of the resurgence of violence, and the emergence of a somewhat ``boomerang effect``, inevitably latent at the public policy level of addressing a resurgence of violence as a focus on addressing state security undermines human security and consequently state security itself; leading to a somewhat conflict-continuous condition punctuated with violence and destruction. Keywords: Human Security, State Capacity, Post-Conflict Reconstruction.