Comparison of three types of dry electrodes for electroencephalography
A potential new area of routine application for electroencephalography (EEG) is the brain-computer interface, which might enable disabled people to interact with their environment, based on measured brain signals. However, conventional electroencephalography is not suitable here due to limitations arising from complicated, time-consuming and error-prone preparation. Recently, several approaches for dry electrodes have been proposed. Our aim is the comparison and assessment of three types of dry electrodes and standard wet silver/silver-chloride electrodes for EEG signal acquisition. We developed novel EEG electrodes with titanium and polyurethane as base materials, which were coated with nanometer sized titanium-nitride films. Furthermore gold multi-pin electrodes were arranged on printed circuit boards. The results of the comparison of these electrodes with conventional wet silver/silver-chloride electrodes in terms of electrode impedances are presented, as well as open circuit potentials and biosignal measurements. Impedances were significantly higher for all dry electrode types compared to wet electrodes, but still within the measurement range of today’s standard biosignal amplifiers. It was found that the novel dry titanium and polyurethane based electrodes show biosignal quality equivalent to conventional electrodes. In conclusion, the novel dry electrodes seem to be suitable for application in brain-machine interfaces.