This paper discusses two analysis activities in the construction material industry, which could be solved by intelligent image processing algorithms. The first task is the optical identification of recycled aggregates of construction and demolition waste (CDW) as basis of an innovative sorting method on the field of processing of CDW. The second and far more complicated task due to very high phenotypical object variabilities within the subclasses is the optical analysis of samples from mineral aggregates. The application of automatically optical identification methods can save time and thus costs. This is an important factor for small and medium-sized companies in the construction material industry.