This doctoral thesis deals with the electrochemical and optical characterization of electro-optically active materials, in particular 2,2′,6′,2″-terpyridine-based metallopolymers and ruthenium(II) polypyridyl-type complexes, as well as thin-film processability studies thereof. The optical investigations on metallopolymers that are composed of π-conjugated chromophores, 2,2′,6′,2″-terpyridine linker units, and zinc(II) metal ions reveal a broad range of UV-vis absorption and emission wavelengths as well as high photoluminescence quantum yields proving the suitability for luminescent devices (e. g. OLEDs, PLEDs). In contrast, the explored ruthenium(II) complexes, which are based on a new type of tridentate, 1,2,3-triazole-containing ligands, show electrochemical and optical properties making them capable candidates as photosensitizers, e. g. for usage in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Furthermore, for both zinc(II)-2,2′,6′,2″-terpyridine-based metallopolymers and ruthenium(II) complexes, the preparation of thin films is studied. On the one hand, the metallopolymers are successfully processed via inkjet-printing technique to gain thin, luminescent deposits. On the other hand, ruthenium(II) complexes of different tridentate polypyridyl-type ligands, namely of 2,6-di(quinoline-8-yl)pyridines and of cyclometalated 1,2,3-triazole-containing ligands, are processed through anodic electrochemical polymerization yielding thin polymeric electrode coatings.