”You Should Not or You Must Not” : The Impact of Goal-Type on the Infliction of Harm on Members of Deviant Groups
A methodological paradigm has been suggested to address the basic research question of this research: Does the deviance from a minimal goal deal to a higher level of harm inflicted on members of a deviant OG than the deviance from a maximal goal? A number of methodological aspects have been implemented in this experimental paradigm. It is synergetic as different aspects of experimental games in general and the Public Goods Game in particular are used to address a multitude of these aspects: The use of experimental games most importantly ensures a highly controlled experimental environment while allowing at the same time the measurement of actual negative forms of behavior such as punishment and social exclusion. Slight modifications of a Public Goods Game can be used to manipulate participants´ representation of a superordinate goal as either minimal or maximal. The following chapter presents a series of experiments using this experimental paradigm in order to test the impact of a minimal versus a maximal superordinate goal on the infliction of harm on a deviant OG.