Ontogeny and phylogeny of gasteroid members of Agaricaceae (Basidiomycetes)
The focus of this work are the gasteromycetation events of fungi related to the Basidiomycete family of Agaricaceae. These fungi occur in a diversity of shapes, and yet are all adapted to angio- or cleistocarpic, passive spore dispersal. Traditionally, they were treated within Lycoperdaceae and Tulostomataceae, or in various secotioid genera of uncertain assignment. By molecular phylogeny, ten independent events of gasteromycetation are revealed within Agaricaceae s. l., and relationships to hymenothecial taxa are shown. Five major clades are revealed, which are referred to as Tulostomataceae, Coprinaceae, Lepiotaceae, Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae s. str. For Langermannia gigantea, the new flabelloid type of hymenial development is shown, with considerable differences to other Lycoperdaceae. Ontogeny of Lycoperdaceae generally deviates from the results of previous analyses. New data on distribution of gasteroid fungi is gained by fungus-floristic analyses of the secotioid fungi of Mongolia, and the gasteroid fungi of Panama. Two new records for Mongolia, and ten new findings for Panama are given. In a review of the morphological features of gasteroid Agaricaceae s. l. under consideration of ecological background and phylogenetic relationships, gasteromycetation is explained as evolutionary process where the presence of comparable ecological constraints led to analogous anatomical changes, often concealing phylogenetic heritage. The evolutionary age can not fully explain the morphological differences between gasteroid groups. Paedomorphosis, understood as disturbance of the succession of developmental regulation, is assumed as triggering process of gasteromycetation. The primary dispersal strategy of gasteroid Agaricaceae is euanemochory, which is established mainly in steppe and desert habitats. From there, colonisation of other biomes followed under evolution of appropriate anatomical features.